Pool Info: Pool Heater Sizing
All of the swimming pool heaters at Poolcenter.com, from the small 100 (100,000 btu) unit to the largest 400's (400,000 btu's of output per hour) size will heat your pool. The smaller heaters are slower to heat, and will operate more often to keep up with the output of larger heaters. Larger heater sizes are a small bit more efficient than the smaller pool heaters. Use of a pool cover to retain heat and installing fences or other wind* obstructions can reduce demands on the pool heater and affect pool heater size.
Gas Pool Heater Sizing
If you are trying to heat a pool/spa combo, a 400 btu pool heater (the Big Boy) is usually used for fast (15 - 30 minutes) heating of an attached hot tub. A smaller pool heater can also heat a spa it will just take longer. Using a spa solar blanket cover can reduce the heat up time by a few minutes. Custom made insulated spa tops can keep most of the heat inside the spa, and have it ready for the moment you want to use it.
To size a pool heater, ask yourself a few questions about your anticipated usage patterns. If you will be heating intermittently, for example, turning on the heater on Friday, and turning it off on Monday, then a quick heat up is required. Gas heaters only add 1 - 2 degrees of heat per hour to the average pool. A larger heater is best for this usage pattern.
If you expect to be maintaining a temperature by setting the thermostat, and maybe adding a few degrees in the evening or on weekends, then a smaller size pool heater can be used. Smaller heaters have to run more often to maintain the heat, as compared to a larger heater, and as such are slightly less efficient.
Use the chart below as a guideline in sizing a heater to your pool size. Factor in the usage patterns and other considerations above and then consider going one size larger for good measure.
|Size Heater||Gallons in Pool||Sq. Ft. Surface Area of Pool|
|100 - 200 BTU heaters||1,000 gals to 10,000 gals||up to 300 sq ft|
|200 - 300 BTU heaters||10,000 gals to 20,000 gals||up to 500 sq ft|
|300 - 400 BTU heaters||20,000 gals to 40,000 gals||up to 800 sq ft|
|400 BTU heaters||40,000 gals to 80,000 gals||up to 1200 sq ft|
Pool Heat Pump Sizing
For pool heat pump sizing, as a general rule, plan on 50,000 BTU of pool heat pump for every 10,000 gallons of pool water. A pool cover can help immensely to retain the heat, especially used at night.
Pool heat pumps draw warmth from the outside air and convert it into warm pool water. They are electrical units, and in warm temperatures, they cost no more to run than a 100 watt light bulb. In cooler temperatures, it takes more energy to maintain the heat, but is still cheaper than gas pool heat. When outside air temps reach mid-50’s however, a pool heat pump will not be able to extract much heat from the outside air, and will eventually stop heating the water.
As compared to gas heaters, pool heat pumps are quiet, clean and much cheaper and safer to operate, but on the downside, they are slow to heat (5-9 degrees per day), and won’t operate at all during cold outside temperatures.
Pool heat pump sizing is also accomplished by their BTU output. Heat pumps are available in ranges from 50,000 to 150,000 BTU’s. For an inground pool choose one of the larger heat pump sizes. You can go smaller in size if you have a pool cover that will be used constantly, or if you are only heating during summer months. Larger pool heat pump sizes will heat faster, and maintain temperature more easily during colder months.
Solar Pool Heater Sizing
Sizing a solar pool heater is less tricky than sizing a pool heat pump or gas heater. Every little bit helps, but if you want a 20 degree (F) temperature rise, plan on installing enough solar panels that exceeds half the square footage of the pool. For example, if an inground pool has 600 sq. ft. of surface area, you will want to have at least 300 sq. ft. of solar panel surface area.
Other factors come into play as well when sizing a solar pool heater. The heat produced by a solar pool heater depends on the amount of daily sunshine the panels receive; 4-8 hours of unobstructed, direct sunshine is recommended. In addition, using a solar cover or blocking the wind makes a big difference to avoid losing heat too rapidly. Finally, a solar controller is highly recommended to optimize heating, by sending water to the panels only when the sensors detect available heat, bypassing during cloudy periods and night time hours.
Efficient Pool Heating
Wind is the largest heat thief around your pool, with the possible exception of teenagers. To prevent users from cranking up the heat, make sure they know that turning the heater thermostat to maximum does not increase the heating speed, and creates a danger of overheating the pool, which is expensive and wasteful. Mechanical thermostats often have a ‘Temp-Lok’ that allows you to set a maximum range for heating, and digital heaters can be controlled by an app or remote panel.
- If heating only on weekends, reduce temperature by 10°-15° during the week
- Keep a thermometer in your pool to know what’s most comfortable for you.
- Turn Off the heater if not using the pool for an extended time period
- Adjust pump timeclock to run heater for several hours before pool usage
- After heating in Spa Mode, return Valving to Pool Mode
- Adjust thermostat to a lower temperature of 78-80°
- Use a floating solar cover to reduce heat loss.
- Wind blocks also reduce pool surface heat loss.